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Table 1 Development of multidimensional SPM methods at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

From: Big data and deep data in scanning and electron microscopies: deriving functionality from multidimensional data sets

Technique Dimensionality Current data set File volume References
1. Band excitation (BE) 3D, space, and ω (256 × 256) × 64 32 MB [35,68,69,127-129]
2. Switching spectroscopy PFM 3D, space, and voltage (64 × 64) × 128 4 MB [61,130-139]
3. Time relaxation PFM 3D, space, and time (64 × 64) × 128 4 MB [71,140,141]
4. AC sweeps 4D, space, ω, voltage (64 × 64) × 64 × 256 512 MB [142,143]
5. BE SSPFM 4D, space, ω, voltage (64 × 64) × 64 × 128 256 MB [11,72,144-148]
6. BE thermal 4D, space, ω, temp (64 × 64) × 64 × 256 512 MB [16,17,149,150]
7. Time relaxation BE 4D, space, ω, time (64 × 64) × 64 × 64 4 MB [151] [151-153]
8. First-order reversal curves 5D, space, ω, voltage, voltage (64 × 64) × 64 × 64 × 16 2 GB [153-157]
9. Time relaxation on sweep, BE 5D, space, ω, voltage, time (64 × 64) × 64 × 64 × 64 8 GB [158,159]
10. FORC time BE 6D, space, ω, voltage, voltage, time (64 × 64) × 64 × 64 × 16 × 64 128 GB Not yet realized
  1. ω, frequency; BE, band excitation; PFM, piezoresponse force microscopy; AC, alternating current; SS PFM, switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy; FORC, first-order reversal curve.