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Fig. 9 | Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging

Fig. 9

From: Optimal principal component analysis of STEM XEDS spectrum images

Fig. 9

Elemental maps extracted from (a) raw and (b) filtered experimental datasets; ce represent elemental maps extracted from the reconstructed datasets according the (c) unweighted PCA, (d) weighted PCA and (e) filtered and weighted PCA treatments. The number of principal components used in reconstruction was 18 for (c), 12 for (d) and 7 for (e). For fair comparison, all maps are displayed with identical contrast settings. The PCA treatment improves noticeably the visibility of the chemical components, especially the weak-signal elements—Ta and Hf. Note that the treatment variants (c) and (d) cause the artificial intermixing of the Ta and Hf layers

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